Most of the total volume of water (98%) refers to the water footprint of the feed for the animals. Rough average of 150 billion gallons CH4globally per d… While the shift to biofuels is generally welcomed, their production could demand as much water as fossil fuels. For example, extensive beef-cattle systems generate animal products by using rainfall on land that is suitable for few other agricultural purposes (except for forests in mountain regions). Life cycle assessment approaches tend either to exclude green water (considering that the evapotranspiration of soil water by crops has no more impact than that by the vegetation they replaced) or to include only the variation in green water attributable to changes in land use (e.g., from pasture to cropland; e.g., de Boer et al., 2011). Indeed, evapotranspiration, the main water outflow, is positively correlated with rainfall, and areas with high rainfall usually do not suffer from water scarcity problems. Agriculture accounts for 40% of California’s water use, through irrigation of approximately nine million acres of farmland. 4 Agriculture is also a major source of water pollution from nutrients, pesticides and other Research to develop indicators that inherently represent environmental impacts of water use has flourished in the past few years, specifically in the framework of life cycle assessment (LCA). Outside of meat production, it’s being pointed out that raising crops in California, with its abundant sunshine and lack of water, may not be as good a business model as it was in year’s past. In this guide we look at how much water the different sectors and industries use worldwide, and also in specific countries. Worldwide, agriculture represents 70% of total blue water use and 86% of blue + green water use (World Water Assessment Programme, 2009), whereas livestock farming uses 15% of the evapotranspiration of irrigated crops, 33% of that of rain-grown crops, and 68% of that of permanent pastures and rangelands (FAO, 2006). Alternately, farmers could purchase corn from regions where it requires no irrigation, but other environmental impacts may increase because of changes in land use and, to a lesser extent, increased transportation distances. Additionally, differences in which management and environmental processes are included in system boundaries need to be considered when comparing methods. These indicators, oriented toward estimating total water use by-products, are useful for tallying international trade in virtual water and discussing the use of volumes of blue, green, and gray water in water resource management. D.
For ruminants, total water intake is generally between 3.5 and 5.5 L/kg of dry matter intake in temperate countries; it is greater for dairy cows than for growing animals or animals at maintenance. How Much Water Does Vertical Farming Use? Slaughtering just one animal can use up to 132 gallons of water . India does not spend any money in conserving water consumed in Here we describe 3 methods of classification for water use: 1) “virtual water and water footprints (which include blue, green, and gray water use),” 2) assessments of blue water use only, and 3) assessments of stress-weighted water use. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), water used for irrigation accounts for nearly 65 percent of the world’s freshwater withdrawals excluding thermoelectric power (1). The Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment is responsible for policy and programs that support a globally competitive and sustainable Australian food industry. In contrast, few LCA approaches include gray water, most considering that it is already addressed in the LCA impact indicators for aquatic toxicity (related to pesticide and heavy-metal emissions) and potential eutrophication (related to nitrate and phosphate emissions, among others). Find your information in our database containing over 20,000 reports, Tools and Tutorials explained in our Media Centre, global population connected to wastewater collection systems, global water and sewerage infrastructure satisfaction. Another possibility is to replace corn with other cereals, although their nutritional characteristics (e.g., amino acid composition) may differ. Worldwide, agriculture accounts for 70% of all water consumption. Nature of blue water used for livestock farming. The blue water uses calculated by Mekonnen and Hoekstra (2010) represent approximately 3% of the green water use of beef, and 10% of the green water use of pork, chicken, eggs, and milk (Table 2), but the average values hide large differences between countries and between systems. In the Wellington region, Do New , Pfister S. Ridoutt
, Hoving I. E., Vellinga T. V. Deutsch
Approximately 3.8tn cubic metres of water is used by humans annually with 70% being consumed by the global agriculture sector. Among others, agronomic and genetic improvements have been detailed in an expert evaluation by INRA (2006). Agriculture Meat’s large water footprint: why raising livestock and poultry for meat is so resource-intensive Kai Olson-Sawyer December 16, 2013 0 Surprise and disbelief. The effect of on-farm water management is sometimes calculated by comparing it with the effect of natural vegetation, for which evapotranspiration is estimated as a simple function of rainfall (Ridoutt et al., 2011). This New York Times article on agricultural water use in California suggests that we’re shipping 100 billion gallons of water a year to China in the form of alfalfa. Because one of the main roles in animal products is to provide protein, kilograms of protein may be a more relevant unit when several foods are compared. These differences are mainly due to characteristics of the production systems (i.e., an organic system without irrigation vs. a more intensive system with irrigation), and significant between-year differences were observed. Global Water Outlook to 2025: Averting an Impending Crisis, A Report. Because the risk of water scarcity in agriculture is related to blue water use, we have focused on how it can be decreased in livestock farming, from cradle to farm gate. In a recent global study, Mekonnen and Hoekstra (2012) show that animal products have a large water footprint (WF) relative to crop products. Water footprinting: How to address water use in life cycle assessment? Under Dutch conditions, de Boer et al. More than 1 billion people depend on livestock farming, and animal products are an essential component of human diets. Tools such as the water footprint and LCA are available, but their interpretation by policy makers has to be refined. Review of GHG and Water in the Red Meat Industry—Report 1. No. The total water used to produce human foods is generally calculated per unit of product, the most common of which are kilograms, kilocalories, or a monetary unit. Blue and green water are thus closely interwoven. This may happen even in regions with high rainfall, where population density and economic activity are high. After all, we have an abundance of rivers, lakes, and even three oceans, and we’re home to the largest fresh water lakes in the world. At the global scale, when total water use is expressed per kilograms of product, crop products almost always have less use than animal products (Hoekstra and Chapagain, 2007). When blue water alone is considered, total water use is much less: 27 to 540 L/kg of carcass-weight beef produced in Australia (Peters et al., 2010). Observed and predicted water withdrawal as a percentage of renewable water stocks in 1995 and 2025, respectively [source: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/GRID-Arendal Maps and Graphics Library, 2009]. Geographic distribution of cattle and summer water restrictions in France. However, this relationship may weaken when biomass production is low because the proportion of evaporation from soil in total evapotranspiration increases; a decrease in biomass may also be due to a shortage of nutrients, such as nitrogen. Res. data than referenced in the text. Because freshwater availability depends greatly on geographic location (Figure 4), water use should be calculated for a specific area, either per hectare or per kilogram of product within that area. (2010) estimated weighted blue water use of milk solids as 108 and 14 L/kg (i.e., approximately 830 and 108 L/kg of milk, respectively). Because food sovereignty should be a target for each country, an increase in animal productivity can be an objective; however, this is often difficult to achieve because of environmental, social, and economic constraints. With beef requiring some 400 million gallons of water per ton of meat produced are we now required to come up with ways to raise beef without such a heavy dependence on water? A clean and plentiful water supply is essential for productive agriculture to supply the public with adequate food and fiber. International Business Times. Concepts have been defined in the last 2 decades to differentiate water in the environment depending on its location. Nonetheless, the methods mentioned in this paragraph may decrease water intake by animals only slightly. In arid zones, the use of draft animals for drilling, hydraulic works, water extraction, and transport supports human settlements (Blanfort et al., 2011). Global water treatment and supply companies based on revenue 2018, Market value of leading water utilities companies worldwide 2020, Leading water utilities companies worldwide based on market cap 2020, Annual water withdrawals worldwide by region 2010, Global water withdrawal per capita by select country 2018, Global share of population with wastewater collection systems by region 2018, Water infrastructure repair market size worldwide 2020-2026, Global hydropower installed capacity 2014-2019, Global water withdrawal and consumption 2014-2040, Global water consumption by sector 2014-2040, Facebook: number of monthly active users worldwide 2008-2020, Smartphone market share worldwide by vendor 2009-2020, Number of apps available in leading app stores 2020, Country with the largest renewable water resources, Wastewater treatment's share of the global water industry market, Share of the global population with access to safely managed water, Global market share of water subsectors 2019, Global per capita renewable water resources by select country 2017, Global population with access to improved drinking water sources by region 2017, Share of global freshwater withdrawals by major water use sector 2010, Global key figures on wastewater generation 2020, Global wastewater treatment companies based on revenue 2018, Global water withdrawals by select country 2017, Global satisfaction with water and sewerage infrastructure by country 2019, Global per capita spending on water, sanitation, and hygiene by country 2019, Global operational desalination plants by sector use 2018, Worldwide added new hydropower capacity by region 2019, Largest hydropower producing countries 2019, Global energy consumption share in the water sector by use 2016, Global industrial wastewater treatment market value by region 2019-2024, Global industrial water demand by region 2010 & 2050. Although the debate on the consumption of animal products in developed countries remains open, the interaction between livestock and water resources should be considered with the objective of establishing sustainable farming systems. The water footprint of a nation is the amount of water used to produce the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of that nation. Land use changes can also significantly contribute to climate change. When an LCA approach is considered, an efficient way to decrease water intake per kilogram of product is to decrease the total amount of feeds necessary to obtain the final product or to improve the productivity of the animal production system. Among existing studies, water use per kilogram of beef ranges from 27 to 200,000 L (Peters et al., 2010; Wiedemann et al., 2010). L.
Thus, a definition of water scarcity that emphasizes the important role of water demand is, “the point at which the aggregate impact of all users impinges on the supply or quality of water... to the extent that the demand by all sectors, including the environment, cannot be satisfied fully” (UN-Water/FAO, 2007). Consumptive use is estimated at 56% for irrigation and 67% for livestock uses. J.
Motorized tankers allow water to be taken directly to animals, rather than vice versa (source: Bernard Faye; used with permission). Washington (DC): World Bank. The amount of water wasted globally … This is likely to decrease to 83.3% by 2025. B. G.
It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. Worldwide, agriculture accounts for 70% of all water consumption. On global landmasses, rainfall exceeds evapotranspiration by an average of 70%, whereas on the ocean, evaporation exceeds rainfall. When rainfall exceeds evapotranspiration, excess water infiltrates into the groundwater and runs off into rivers and then oceans, where it evaporates. For example, the mean blue water use for chicken meat equals 30 L/kg in Brazil and 873 L/kg in India. October 7, 2015 Economic Development Over one billion people worldwide work in agriculture generating $2.4 trillion for the global economy. water withdrawal) by industry to water use by other sectors, namely agriculture and domestic use, it is clear that globally, industry uses only a fraction of the amount of water used by agriculture. This includes all nonagricultural activities, including industry, services, and domestic purposes, as well as some agricultural activities, such as crop irrigation, livestock drinking water use, use in factories producing inputs (e.g., seeds, fertilizers, animal feeds), or those producing animal products (e.g., dairy factories, slaughterhouses, tanneries). For example, estimations of water use to produce 1 kg of beef range from 3 to 540 L of H2O or H2O equivalents for the life cycle assessment approach and from 10,000 to 200,000 L of H2O for the water footprint. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. Camels drinking from a trough in the an-Nafud Desert (Saudi Arabia). Water cycle and people: Water for feeding humanity, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The Water Footprint Assessment Manual: Setting the Global Standard. New, Figures and insights about the advertising and media world, Industry Outlook Animal agriculture puts a heavy strain on many of the Earth’s finite land, water and energy resources. The green, blue and grey water footprint of farm animals and animal products. The global water cycle is complex. If green water is included in estimates (as in water footprints), the total water used by low-producing animals in pastoral rangelands, such as those in arid plains or high mountains, would be extremely high. Some LCA approaches also include endpoint indicators that estimate the impact on human health, ecosystem quality, or resource depletion (e.g., Milà I Canals et al., 2009). Fossil fuel depletion and greenhouse gas emissions are other urgent priorities that have to be taken into account in a global approach for assessing environmental impacts of farming systems. A more efficient use of water in agriculture would certainly help. (2012) for 6 Australian beef systems, which correspond to blue water use, weighted by water-stress indices, ranging from 3 to 221 L/kg of body weight of beef. Livestock in a Changing Landscape. Agriculture is a water-intensive practice, which is a concern for US regions that have increasing drought risk. Water evaporated from one location generally returns to the surface as rainfall at another location. Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options. As per the Central Water Commission, 85.3% of the total water consumed was for agriculture in the year 2000. All important statistics are prepared by our experts – available for direct download as PPT & PDF! For example, the use of green water does not have the same impact on competitive blue water resources in a river system as the direct consumption of blue water has. In any case, the conceptual chain from estimating water use to estimating its potential impact is not built explicitly into the water footprint concept. Livestock water use and productivity in the Nile Basin. It is likely that the growing idea in developed countries that animal-product consumption should decrease will not influence this trend. Water in a Changing World. A. Y.
able water resources globally, this fraction is much higher—up to 80–90%—in many arid and semiarid river basins where water is scarce. Direct water intake by animals is composed of drinking water, water contained in feeds, and a small amount of metabolic water produced by nutrient metabolism. Some breeds adapted to drought, such as goats and camels, consume less water because of better water recycling. Additionally, water use may be more detrimental in one region compared with another, depending on the level of water stress in each region (Figure 3). Find Out Both methods sum blue, green, and gray water use into a single indicator. There are 330 million acres of land used for agricultural purposes in the United States that produce an abundance of food and other products (2). As with most agricultural LCA, most existing studies stop at the farm gate, some continue to the slaughterhouse or food-processing factory, and at least one continues to the end consumer. The use of agricultural water makes it possible to grow fruits and vegetables and raise livestock, which is a main part of our diet. Food and agriculture are the largest consumers of water, requiring one hundred times more than we use for personal needs. When beef is produced by culled cows from a dairy herd, the amount of water necessary to produce 1 kg of beef is divided between milk and beef products. This multiple-criteria approach is one of the advantages of LCA. 2000. For pork, the system that requires the most blue water in Brazil and Australia is grazing, whereas in India, it is industrial production. Now, Kerlink, a specialist in solutions dedicated to the Internet of Things (IoT), and Sensoterra, a specialist in wireless soil-moisture-sensor solutions, have announced a partnership to take care of water waste. The history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. Globally, about 40% of irrigation water is supplied from groundwater and in India it is expected to be over 50%. V.
Those pumps run on electricity, which runs on fossil fuels. Pimentel et al. For the same methodology, results also depend on the boundaries of the systems; for example, the total water use for 1 kg of beef may or may not include the contribution of nursing cows. The most important key figures provide you with a compact summary of the topic of "Global water Industry" and take you straight to the corresponding statistics. Agriculture accounts for 92% of the freshwater footprint of humanity; almost one third relates to animal products. Summary – Which Industries Use The Most Water The global average for fresh water withdrawals by sector is – agriculture (and irrigation) at 70%, industry at 19%, and municipal (household and public services) at 11%. Agricultural water is used for irrigation, pesticide External and fertilizer applications External , crop cooling (for example, light irrigation), and frost control. However, the present trend in food consumption is a rapid increase in animal products at the expense of crops in emerging and developing countries (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2009). This water is often not used sustainably. , van der Werf H. M. G. Berger
Agriculture cannot be ignored in the water equation, said Gerald Galloway, a civil engineer and visiting scholar with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The hidden water resource use behind meat and dairy, Water footprints of nations: Water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern. , Doreau M. Peters
Global water demand is expected to increase greatly in the future, by 50% between 1995 and 2025 (United Nations Environment Programme, 2008), especially in developing countries, not only because of larger human populations, but also because of overall increases in industrial production and human affluence, which lead to greater consumption of energy, consumer goods, and food, especially animal products. Similar ranges (25 to 234 L/kg of body weight of beef) were observed by Ridoutt et al. And this directly affects agricultural water use in California. Deutsch et al. United Nations Environment Programme, 2008, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2004, International Organization for Standardization, 2006, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2009, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2006, http://www.inra.fr/l_institut/expertise/expertises_realisees/secheresse_et_agriculture_rapport_d_expertise, http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg1/en/contents.html, http://www.grida.no/publications/vg/water2/, http://www.fao.org/nr/water/docs/escarcity.pdf, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Copyright © 2020 American Society of Animal Science. Agriculture is the science and art of cultivating plants and livestock. Does Livestock Production Contribute to Water Scarcity? Globally, 70% of Freshwater is Used for Agriculture. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. Some blue water returns to the location where it was consumed; for example, a part of the water consumed by livestock (including water contained in feeds) returns to the farm in feces and urine; however, a minor part returns to groundwater by infiltration (Table 1). Book of Abstracts, 62nd Annu. Blue, Green, or Gray Water: Which One Is Critical to Calculate Water Use? Climate change, water and food security. Sources and methods: The data on water consumption in the world is provided by the … , Sanguansri P., Nolan M., Marks N. Ridoutt
Agriculture is the number-one user of water, accounting for 65% of total water consumed in Australia and 70% worldwide. Irrigation water and rainfall are taken up by plants and then transpired, moving to another location via the atmosphere. By 2050, feeding a planet of 9 billion people will require an estimated 50 percent increase in agricultural production and a 15 percent increase in water withdrawals. . Areas suffering from water scarcity may change from year to year. The “water footprint” approach includes green water, whereas life cycle assessment approaches tend to exclude green water or to include only the variation in green water resulting from changes in land use. Hoekstra and Chapagain (2007) estimated a water footprint of approximately 15,000 L/kg of beef. Methods for estimating the virtual water in livestock products began with virtual water accounting in 1993, which focused on imports of agricultural products as one way for water-scarce countries to compensate for a relatively limited potential for agricultural production. and over 1 Mio. P.
Animal agriculture puts a heavy strain on many of the Earth’s finite land, water and energy resources. Total green and blue water use per kilogram of animal product1. Some of the crops that require the most water … When used to indicate the environmental impacts of such water use, however, the relevance of these methods is questionable. 1: Main Report. Update, Insights into the world's most important technology markets, Advertising & Media Outlook Because of these differences and the fact that existing studies have analyzed only a limited number of different livestock production systems, methods give wildly different results for the same livestock product. Unlike camels, which can drink once a week, cattle must drink at least every other day (source: Bernard Faye; used with permission). For the remaining 36%, especially those living in temperate zones, livestock farming could be performed without strong water restrictions. 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